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如何写好一篇论文的引言

2020-09-17



不论写什么类型的文章,都需要写一个引言。有时候,我们不知道如何开头,便会等到整篇文章都写好了,才添上一个开头。那个时候,我们的逻辑相对清楚,写起开头来也相对容易。我们都希望写一个更有意思的开头,给读者开出一条路,吸引他们读下去。于是,我们可能先举一个例子,再来说明我们的观点:

The first time we see Darth Vader doing more than heavy breathing in Star Wars (1977), hes strangling a man to death. A few scenes later, hes blowing up a planet. He kills his subordinates, chokes people with his mind, does all kinds of things a good guy would never do. But then the nature of a bad guy is that he does things a good guy would never do. Good guys dont just fight for personal gain: they fight for whats right their values.

先写《星战》中反面角色的所作所为,然后说明作者的观点:在故事中,人们认为坏人会做一些好人不会做的事,好人为其价值观而生。而在另一些文章中,作者往往会回顾一些学者的研究,或者一段历史时间里的事件(Historical review)。

还有一些文章,会采用“从大到小”的写法(From the General to the Specific)。比如,先写人类有自私的问题,再引出人类不关心环境,造成污染。今天,向大家介绍几种引言的写法,并提供实例:

1. 引用某人某言 Quotation

原文标题:Would the world be more peaceful if there were more women leaders?

原文链接:https://aeon.co/ideas/would-the-world-be-more-peaceful-if-there-were-more-women-leaders

Or, as her fellow peace activist Helena Swanwick wrote: the shared fear that in war women die, and see their babies die, but theirs is no glory; nothing but horror and shame unspeakable.

这篇文章的主要观点是:如果有更多女性领导者,是不是世界会更和平。因此,作者开头先引用了一位女性和平运动家的话语;然后,引出一个许多活动家们都支持的观点:女性领导者会带来和平。

2. 以小说大 From the Specific to the General

原文标题:Whats the best option?

原文链接:https://aeon.co/essays/attempts-to-choose-the-best-life-may-be-doomed-to-failure

After all, most parents genuinely want what is best for their children they just have different conceptions of what that requires.

这篇文章的作者主要写逻辑学中如何比较好坏。开头,作者说:家长们都希望小孩子做最好的选择,但是对何为“最好”(逻辑学中“最好”的要求)一点儿也不清楚。开头写一个小小的、具体的情况,一方面能吸引读者关心这篇文章的话题,一方面也能让读者明白抽象问题的现实意义。

3. 提问题 Question

原文标题:Why we love tyrants?

原文链接:https://aeon.co/essays/the-omnipotent-victim-how-tyrants-work-up-a-crowds-devotion

Why have people welcomed tyrannical, authoritarian leaders time after time?

这篇文章中,作者想解释独裁者为什么受欢迎。于是,开头就提出这个问题。虽然作者没有直接给出答案,但是读者已经清楚地知道文章要讨论的话题了。因此,这种开头非常直接省力。当然,也可以和上面各种方法结合起来,一同使用。

4. 直接表达观点 Statement of thesis

原文标题:Our dreams have many purposes, changing across the lifespan

原文链接:https://aeon.co/ideas/our-dreams-have-many-purposes-changing-across-the-lifespan

Although radically different in terms of their content and feel, the range of dream states are just as complex as waking states.

这篇文章介绍梦的各种用途。开头,作者就说梦,除了内容和感觉上的不同,也可以被系统地分类。于是,作者接着说,童年、成年的梦不同;年轻人、年老者的梦不同;男女之梦也有别。


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